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Poverty, Aid and Corruption (2007)Transparency International Policy Paper
This TI policy paper offers recommendations on how to make most efficient use of development resources in anti-poverty programmes and tackling the supply-side of corruption. It shows how cooperation in multi-stakeholder environments and the decentralisation of aid delivery can help avoid corruption-prone settings.

The paper is the result of a series of consultations within the Transparency International movement, and reflects TI’s previous work, current discussion within the movement and debates in the wider development community.

Poverty, aid and corruption is a complex subject; this paper is an effort to engage with and shape it. For more information, please contact Kulan Amin at poverty@transparency.org


Anti-Corruption Policies in Asia and the Pacific, 2004
Anti-Corruption Policies in Asia and the Pacific presents an overview of the main developments in the area of combating corruption in 21 Asian and Pacific countries and territories. The publication is based on information provided by the governments that have endorsed the Anti-Corruption Action Plan for Asia and the Pacific through self-assessment reports and through publicly available information on the relevant institutions’ official websites.

BMZ: Combating corruption in German Development Cooperation (2002)
This paper lays out the German development approach to the fight against corruption. The strategy gives support to systemic institutional change with prophylactic nature. Autonomy of partner institutions and the political will to change are essential prerequisites.

CIDA: Anti-Corruption Programming: Questions and Strategies (2000)
This document concentrates on the impact of systemic corruption on the sustainability of aid projects, taking corruption issues into account in policy and program decisions, and the programming of specific anti-corruption activities.

Debt Relief for Development - A plan of Action (NORAD, 2004)
This plan of action outlines new debt policy approaches that are consequent on the “expansion” of the Debt Relief Strategy. It provides for unilateral Norwegian debt relief for
certain middle-income countries through multilaterally coordinated debt swaps and for poor countries emerging from war and conflict.

DANIDA, DFID, NORAD and SIDA support to Transparency International Bangladesh: National Integrity Programme (Phase 2: Making Waves, 2002-2008)
The project’s goal is sustainable poverty reduction through participation by men and women in decisions affecting their lives and more accountable government at all levels. The purpose to be achieved by the end of the project period is to increase demand by men and women for transparency in public, non-profit and private sector transactions.

DFID Support Programme for Ugandan Led Anti-Corruption Initiatives (1999-2004)
This DFID programme will provide support for efforts to build integrity and combat corruption. It also supports the Directorate of Public Prosecutions (DPP), the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) and the Judiciary in their anti-corruption plans.

Fighting corruption the Utstein way – status and challenges (H. W. Mathiesen, 2003)
This report uses the U4 project database to investigate which agencies are implementing what kinds of projects in which countries and regions. Furthermore it looks at the size and character of the projects across regions, and finally it analyses whether the projects are aligned to the anti-corruption strategy as outlined in the Utstein partnership.

Fool’s gold- The case for 100% multilateral debt cancellation for the poorest countries Joint agency paper (ActionAid, CAFOD, Oxfam, 2004)
In order to bring poor country debts down to something approaching sustainable levels, and to restore ‘creditor equity’, Actionaid UK, Oxfam International and CAFOD argue to cancel debt to 100% multilaterally to all low-income countries in order for them to meet the MDGs, under a fair and transparent process. There should be an end to harmful economic policy conditionality associated with debt relief. Debt relief should be provided to any country able to use such relief to meet the MDGs.

From the Ground Up Assessing the Record of Anticorruption Assistance in Southeastern Europe (M. Tisne, D. Smilov 2004)
These research findings from twenty case studies of donor-supported projects in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Macedonia, the effects of five years of anticorruption projects and high-profile public awareness campaigns in the South-Eastern Europe are assessed.

GAO: U.S. Anticorruption Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa Will Require Time and Commitment (2004)
This report evaluates the extent of corruption in sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Institute (WBI) and Transparency International (TI) incices and other data were analyzed in order to identify the factors that give rise to corruption in this region. Lessons learnt include the importance of political will, widespread public support, and programmes tailored to country conditions.

GTZ: Fighting Poverty and Corruption Integrating the Fight Against Corruption into the PRS Process – Analysis and Recommendations for Development Cooperation (2004)
This study explores how the link between poverty reduction and the fight against corruption is included in the Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) of the poorest countries. The desk study of the PRS documents of 54 countries includes in-depth analysis of five country case studies: Ghana, Ethiopia, Cameron, Zambia, and Nicaragua.

GTZ Support to the Development of components of an Indonesian anti-corruption strategy (2000-2004)
The project facilitates training and support predominantly for local Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and journalists. It concentrates on a small number of practical but substantial anti-corruption tools like investigative journalism, budget analysis, budget expenditure monitoring and „report card“ surveys to generate user-feedback on public services.

Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative
The HIPC Initiative by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank was first launched in 1996, with the aim of ensuring that no poor country faces a debt burden it cannot manage. The HIPC Initiative is a comprehensive approach to debt reduction for heavily indebted poor countries pursuing adjustment and reform programs.

Human Development Report
In its yearly Human Development Reports, the United Nationes Development Programme focuses on various issues of development.
The 2003 edition of the Human Development Report is devoted to the Millennium Development Goals. The central part of the report is an analysis of what needs to be done to reverse setbacks in the fight against poverty, and offers concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress.

IADB: Strengthening a system framework against corruption for the Inter-American development Bank (2001)
The present document identifies the necessary measures that will enable the Bank to strengthen and further integrate its current actions against corruption. The guidelines contained herein build on an existing body of policies and regulations that accounts for the Bank’s strong record in this field for more than forty years. They reflect the Bank’s need to address its member countries’ rising concern with the limitations to development caused by corruption. They also respond to the Bank’s need to periodically adjust its safeguards to prevent the risk of corruption in view of the growth and expansion of the institution.

IMF: Manual on Fiscal Transparency (revised version 2007)
This site provides access to the latest version of the Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency. Guidance on the implementation of the Code is provided on the site through an updated Manual on Fiscal Transparency. The site also provides a questionnaire that can be used to help gauge a country’s fiscal management practices relative to the standards of the Code.

IMF Approach to Promoting Good Governance and Combating Corruption - A Guide (2002)
This guide, which is presented in a question and answer format, is intended to help the reader locate information about the IMF’s work on governance and corruption. The answer to the question includes links to a large number of online documents further detailing the IMF policies on good governance and anti-corruption. Of particular interest might be the answers to the question ‘findings of the IMF’s research on governance and corruption?

International budget project
The International Budget Project (IBP) was formed within the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities in 1997 to nurture the growth of civil society capacity to analyze and influence government budget processes, institutions and outcomes. The overarching aim of the project is to make budget systems more responsive to the needs of society and, accordingly, to make these systems more transparent and accountable to the public.

International Financial Institutions (IFI) Transparency Resource
This Resource systematically documents the transparency standards of ten International Financial Institutions (IFIs), including the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, in an effort to identify “best practice,” develop a comprehensive vision for much needed transparency reforms, and help interested organizations and individuals access relevant information.

Investing in Development
A practical plan to achieve the development goals, UN Millennium Project, 2005

Managing Fiduciary Risk When Providing Direct Budget Support
This paper provides guidance to DFID staff on how the public expenditure management elements of fiduciary risks should be assessed and managed where DFID provides funds directly to recipient governments to be spent as part of their budgets. It also sets out DFID’s approach to the use of additional safeguards to provide assurances that the effect of budget support will be poverty reduction, and proposes some future directions for collaboration with other development agencies to harmonise approaches.

Measuring ‘Successes’ in 5 African Anti-Corruption Commissions: Ghana, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia (2005)
This research project is based upon in-depth examinations of the operation and strategies of Anti-Corruption Commissions in five African countries. The report outlines recommendations for governments and donors with respect to the future purpose and roles of ACCs.

OECD-DAC Network on Governance Report on Synthesis of lessons learned of donor practices in fighting corruption (2003)
The purpose of this study was to review donor experiences with fighting corruption in developing countries. The study concentrates on lessons learnt and on DAC donor agencies, at the same time recognizing that significant efforts are being made by organizations such as Transparency International (TI) and the OECD.

OECD Best practice for budget transparency (2001)
The Best Practices are designed as a reference tool for Member and non-member countries to use in order to increase the degree of budget transparency in their respective countries. The Best Practices are organised around specific reports for presentational reasons only. It is recognised that different countries will have different reporting regimes and may have different areas of emphasis for transparency. The Best Practices are based on different Member countries’ experiences in each area. It should be stressed that the Best Practices are not meant to constitute a formal “standard” for budget transparency.

OECD-DAC: Harmonising Donor Practices for Effective Aid Delivery: Good Practice Papers (2003)
How should donors and developing countries work towards co-ordinating practices to ensure effective delivery of aid? These guidelines drawn up by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) offer a set of principles and ‘good practices’ for all parties. Their goal is to simplify and harmonise procedures, thereby reducing costs and boosting progress towards the Millennium Development Goals.

Our Common Interest : Report of the Commission for Africa
The Commission for Africa is an initiative of the British Government, made up of 17 commissioners. Our Common Interest, the report of the Commission for Africa was launched simultaneously in London and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Report presents a number of recommendations concerning debt, aid, trade and HIV and Aids in Africa.

Paying the price
Why rich countries must invest now in a war on poverty, Oxfam International, 2004

Preventing Fraud and Corruption in World Bank Projects - A Guide for Staff (2000)
This Guide is intended to enhance awareness of the ways in which fraud and corruption may creep into projects and the measures that can be taken to counter them.

Questionnaire on Fiscal Transparency (IMF, 2001)
This questionnaire provides a systematic means for country authorities to review the transparency of their country’s fiscal management system in relation to the Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency. Completion of the questionnaire is also an important first step in the preparation of a fiscal module of a Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC).

Sida: Sida’s Anti-corruption regulations (2004)
This regulation forms the basis of Sida’s work of counteracting the risks of corruption and dealing with any cases of misuse of Swedish financing of development co-operation that may arise. The main message of the regulation is ”Never accept. Always act. Always inform“. The purpose of this manual is to describe the application of the anti-corruption regulation in concrete terms in order to facilitate its observance. The text follows the headings and layout of the regulation.

Sida: Anti-corruption Strategies in Development Cooperation (2004)
The report takes up anti-corruption policies, strategies and analytical tools of the following donor or multilateral agencies: NORAD, DFID, The World Bank, EU UNDP, OECD/DAC and Transparency International.

Survey Tools for Assessing Performance in Service Delivery
This chapter examines the usefulness of two micro-economic level surveys, the Tracking Survey (PETS) and Quantitative Service Delivery Survey (QSDS) in assessing service delivery. The authors argue that these tools can be used to assess public spending efficiency as well as the quality and quantity of services at household, business and service provider levels.

TI Global Corruption Report
Transparency International's Global Corruption Reports offer an annual, systematic analysis of corruption around the globe, reporting on the state of corruption in 45 countries. The Global Corruption Report 2006 focuses on corruption in health and how corruption deprives millions of essential health care.

UNDP: CONTACT- Country Assessment in Accountability and Transparency
CONTACT, an acronym for Country Assessment in Accountability and Transparency is a set of generic and comprehensive guidelines to assist governments in conducting a self-assessment of their institutions' integrity.

USAID: Anti-Corruption Strategy (2005)
This report summarises USAID new approaches to its anti-corruption strategy. Stronger emphasis will lay on the dynamics of grand corruption and the introduction of new programs to deal with it as well as to do more to identify the ways in which corruption affects all development sectors and design approaches to counter it. US Aid will support reformers with rapid response assistance, and will support diplomatic initiatives that raise anticorruption issues to the highest level.

U4: Fighting the bug within- Anti-corruption measures of the Utstein development agencies (2003)
What are the Utstein agencies doing to protect their own organisations from corrupt behaviour? This study looks at the in-house mechanisms, and highlights comparative aspects of political commitment, the legal framework, codes of conduct, organisation and training.

World Bank Institute: Step by Step Guide to Governance Diagnostic Empirical Tools Implementation
This guide describes with concrete examples the characteristics and implementation procedures of WBI’s Governance and Anti-corruption (GAC) Diagnostics Tools. A set of empirical diagnostic surveys can assist countries in their preparation of action programs, promoting broad participation and consensus-building. The GAC Diagnostics are an example of such tools. Originally designed by WBI and ECSPE, the GAC diagnostics consist of in-depth, country-specific surveys of thousands of households, firms, and public officials that gather information about vulnerabilities within the country’s institutions.

World Development Report
The 2004 edition of the World Bank’s World Development Report focuses on basic services, particularly health, education, water and sanitation, and discusses ways to make them work for poor people. Corruption is mentioned as one of the main reasons for failing service delivery. The Report looks at lessons learnt and good practice and attempts to guide policymakers, donors, and citizens on improving the delivery of basic services.

Zero Tolerance? Assessing the Asian Development Bank’s Efforts to Limit Corruption in its Lending Operations (Stever Herz, 2004)
This review was initiated in response to civil society concerns about the negative effects of corruption on the economic, social, and environmental impacts of ADB projects. It considers the extent to which ADB is complying with the policies and procedures it has put in place to address corruption in its projects and programs and recommends how policy implementation could be strengthened to better combat corruption.


TI Working Paper:
Poverty and Corruption